Cornelius Tiebout Engravings

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Part 5. American Edition of the Works of Josephus

Part 5 provides another example of increasing American independence following the War for Independence. In this example, a New York publisher, William Durell, produced an American version of a book that had been published in London: The Whole Genuine and Complete Works of Flavius Josephus, the Learned and Authentic Jewish Historian and Celebrated Warrior, translated into English by George Henry Maynard. The London edition appeared about 1789, and the American, in 1792, 1794, 1795, and 1799. Many other American editions of works of Josephus have been published during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.

Josephus Frontispiece w Title Page
Tiebout engraving after Conrad Martin Metz: Josephus receiving the Antiquities of the Wars of the Jews
Of the 60 illustrations in each edition, 14 in the American edition were engraved by Cornelius Tiebout. In the carousel below, each of Tiebout's illustrations is preceded by the matching illustration from the London book. If you in-zoom the London images, you may be able to read some of the artists' and engravers' names. In the American images, the artists' names are omitted, but you can easily read Tiebout's signature. Five of Tiebout's engravings were revised for use in Jacob R. Berriman's 1796 American Bible; these five are listed in Part 4.

See the Wikipedia articles Josephus and Antiquities of the Jews.

See also Kristofer Stinson, "A New Jerusalem: Flavius Josephus in Early America", Church History (Cambridge University Press), vol. 91, September 2022, pp. 555-574. According to the Abstract for this article, "...Josephus's histories enabled Americans to hold together the tensions in their national identity and ancient imagination that envisioned the United States as both a new Rome and a New Jerusalem. As a foundation, Josephus breathed life and legitimacy into the developing American culture. By neglecting to account for Josephus in this era, scholars have overlooked one of the most pervasive stories that formed the character and understanding of American Protestantism." You can view the entire American book—724 pages—here: Complete Works of Josephus

As already noted, the carousel below shows not only Tiebout's engravings, but also their precedents. Note the left-to-right reversals of some of the images. The absence of artists' names in the American edition perhaps indicates the publisher's intent that his edition would be "more American" if the [English] artists' names were omitted. In any case, the original paintings, mostly lost or privately owned, are certainly notable. Possibly the list of artists, for all 60 illustrations, has not been previously published. Such a list, including names of the English engravers, is provided in the following table, courtesy of Jenny Ruthven, Special Collections Librarian, University of Southampton.

Illustration Artist Engraver
1 Frontispiece: Josephus receiving the Antiquities and Wars Metz Grignion
2 Ten thousand Jews massacred Metz Grignion
3 The Egyptian midwives drowning the male children Metz Tookey
4 King Solomon building the Temple Metz Grignion
5 The daughter of Eleazar shewing her dead child to the soldiers Corbould Grignion
6 Manasseh, King of Judah, released Metz Tookey
7 Hagar in the wilderness Metz Heath
8 Tyro vindicating the innocence of Herod's sons T. West Tookey
9 Ceconcia, wife of Caius Caesar, the Roman emperor, lamenting T. West Grignion
10 King Herod rejecting the treacherous embraces of his son T. West Tookey
11 Josephus in a cave, after the destruction of Jotapata Ramberg Grainger
12 Delilah, after cutting off Samson's hair Metz Collier
13 The idolatry and apostacy of Jeroboam C. Cooke Grignion
14 Dagon, the idol falling before the ark of God Stothard Grignion
15 Daniel in the lion's den Metz Heath
16 Eleazar, by command of Antiochus, dragging to the torture Weston Grignion
17 Samson slaying the Philistines C. M. Metz Heath
18 The triumph of David, after the death of Goliath Trepisiani Tookey
19 Gideon's sacrifice consumed by fire Metz Heath
20 King Solomon's first sacrifice Luykin Grignion
21 Adad, King of Syria, stifled to death Metz Sharpe
22 The prophet Elias carried up to heaven Stothard Sparrow
23 The fugitive Shechemites burnt and suffocated Metz Blake
24 The feast of the Tabernacles Luyking Grignion
25 Josephus brought before the Emperor Vespasian Ramberg Tookey
26 The battle of Ain and the destruction of the city Stothard Blake
27 The Philistines depositing the armour of Saul Metz Grignion
28 Adam and Eve in paradise Moreau Scot
29 Judas Maccabaeus defeats the Samarian army Metz Grignion
30 The Philistines cutting off the heads of Saul and his three sons Metz Scot
31 Herod in search of treasure breaking the royal sepulchre T. West Grainger
32 The parting of Lot and Abraham Metz Blake
33 Antigonus, king of the Jews beheaded in Antioch C. Cooke Grignion
34 Destruction of the Temple of Baal Metz Parker
35 King David presenting Uriah with a letter to Joab C. Graves Noble
36 Achar confessing his sacrilegious theft
37 The Prophet Natan rebuking King David T. West Grignion
38 The combined forces of the Amalekites defeated
39 Seventy of Ahab's sons slain by order of Jehu
40 Death of Aristobulus, King of the Jews T. West Grignion
41 Manasseh, King of Judah, loaded with chains T. West Sharp
42 Queen Esther fainting before King
43 The apparition of Samuel raised by the witch of Endor Salvator Rosa Noble
44 Map of the countries surrounding the garden of Eden T. Bowen
45 Hilkiah and Shaphan presenting to King Josiah the book of law Stothard Grignion
46 King Artaxerxes presenting to Mordechai the ring Sharpe Warner
47 The assassination of Amnon by order of Absolem Sharpe Warner
48 The building of the tower of Babel Sharpe
49 Jerusalem taken and burned by Nebuchadnezzar Luykin Jas. Neagle
50 Herod reproached by Marianne for his cruelty T. West Page
51 Map of the Holy Land (Thos. Bowen)
52 Ahab, King of Israel, slain in chariot by an arrow
53 The men of Masada murdering their wives and children Ramberg Niegel
54 The six days work of the creation
55 Pharoah and his host of Egyptians drowned Stothard Morris
56 The falling of the walls of Jericho, burning the city C. Metz Smiths
57 Solomon's temple
58 Solomon's wise judgement T. West Warren
59 Zachariah stoned to death Metz Collyer
60 Triumph of Titus after the reduction of Jerusalem T. West Neagle

Works of Josephus, Title page, American edition Works of Josephus, frontispiece, London, 1790 (English artist & engraver) Works of Josephus, frontispiece (Tiebout, engraver) Works of Josephus, Adam and Eve in Paradise, London, 1790 (English artist & engraver) Works of Josephus, Adam and Eve (Tiebout, engraver) Works of Josephus, Hagar, London, 1790 (English artist & engraver) Works of Josephus, Hagar (Tiebout, engraver) Works of Josephus, Egyptian Midwives, London, 1790 (English artist & engraver) Works of Josephus, Egyptian Midwives (Tiebout, engraver) Works of Josephus, Achar, London, 1790 (English artist & engraver) Works of Josephus, Achar (Tiebout, engraver) Works of Josephus, Gideon's Sacrifice, London, 1790 (English artist & engraver) Works of Josephus, Gideon's Sacrifice (Tiebout, engraver) Works of Josephus, Delilah, London, 1790 (English artist & engraver) Works of Josephus, Delilah (Tiebout, engraver) Works of Josephus, Hilkiah and Shapan, London, 1790 (English artist & engraver) Works of Josephus, Hilkiah and Shapan (Tiebout, engraver) Works of Josephus, Daniel, London, 1790 (English artist & engraver) Works of Josephus, Daniel (Tiebout, engraver) Works of Josephus, Death of Aristobulus, London, 1790 (English artist & engraver) Works of Josephus, Death of Aristobulus (Tiebout, engraver) Works of Josephus, Herod, London, 1790 (English artist & engraver) Works of Josephus, Herod (Tiebout, engraver) Works of Josephus, Tyro, London, 1790 (English artist & engraver) Works of Josephus, Tyro (Tiebout, engraver) Works of Josephus, King Herod rejecting, London, 1790 (English artist & engraver) Works of Josephus, King Herod rejecting (Tiebout, engraver) Works of Josephus, Daughter of Eleazar, London, 1790 (English artist & engraver) Works of Josephus, Daughter of Eleazar (Tiebout, engraver) Works of Josephus, The Men of Massada, London, 1790 (English artist & engraver) Works of Josephus, The Men of Massada (Tiebout, engraver) Placing the Cuts (List of the 60 illustrations)